Endocrinology is the Superspeciality that deals with hormones and related diseases. Hormones are biological substances that are secreted from endocrine glands in minute amounts but they influence and control every function of the human body. The different endocrine glands in our body are hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, ovaries, testes, pancreas and adrenal glands. At Cygnus Hospitals, we have expert endocrinologists capable of providing quality care to patients with endocrine diseases.
Pancreas: Pancreas is a gland that produces insulin, which is the hormone responsible for blood glucose regulation. Diabetes develops when either insulin is not produced by the pancreas (type 1 diabetes) or when insulin is not able to act properly (type 2 diabetes). Diabetes is a menace of a disease that adversely affects every organ of the body, particularly eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and brain. We at Cygnus hospitals provide quality and comprehensive care for diabetes patients.
Pituitary: Pituitary is a small gland, the size of a pea, but it is the master gland of our body. It produces hormones that regulate all other endocrine glands, like TSH, ACTH, LH, FSH, Prolactin and Growth Hormone. Diseases of pituitary include those where this gland under-functions, like hypopituitarism, Sheehan’s syndrome, Growth hormone deficiency etc; and those where it hyper-functions as prolactinoma, Acromegaly and Cushing’s Disease.
Thyroid: Thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland located at the front of neck. It is controlled by TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) from the pituitary and produces two hormones- T3 and T4. These control diverse functions of our body. Diseases of thyroid include hypothyroidism, where thyroid produces less T3 and T4; and hyperthyroidism, where thyroid produces excess T3 and T4.
Adrenal glands: These are two small glands located at the superior poles of the two kidneys. They are controlled by the ACTH hormone from the pituitary gland, and produce a very important hormone called cortisol. Diseases of adrenals include Cushing’s disease, adrenal insufficiency, pheochromocytoma etc.
Ovaries and Testes: These are the gonads respectively in women and men. They and again controlled by pituitary hormones LH and FSH, and in turn produce sex steroids responsible for control of puberty, sexual maturation and reproduction. Diseases of ovaries lead to menstrual problems and infertility in women, while diseases of testes lead to hypogonadism and infertility in men.